We have four verbs that all look like they mean the same thing, 'to count': Nod- Gonod- Nedia- Genedia-
So what's the difference between them? How do you know which one to pick?
Gonod- = to count up, to count all the things in a group Nod- = to count. Not necessary all things. Nedia- = to count, reckon or number Genedia- = to reckon, to calculate the number of things (not necessarily by individually counting)
This all looks relatively straightforward, but what about this word? S. arnediad adj. “unnumbered, without reckoning, countless” ✧ WJ/028.1803 (Older form N. arnediad adj. “without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”)
Given Tolkien’s propensity for language, I think we can explain Arnediad meaning ‘without reckoning’ on the basis that he considered the words interchangeable. It’s also the name of the most terrible battle in the legendarium, Nirnaith Arnediad = The Battle of Unnumbered Tears. Given the importance of this battle, I think some leeway is allowed in the definition of the word Arnediad (Ar- is the Doriathrin, Old Sindarin way of saying ‘without’ before Pen- was introduced).
This leaves both Nedia- and Genedia- as being viable candidates for talking about figurative counting (Nedion gelyenin = I count my blessings, Genedion gelyenin = I reckon my blessings) but if I were specifically wanting to say ‘I calculate’, I would use Genedia- (Genedion in Edhil = I am calculating the number of Elves).
'To reckon' is much more 'to calculate' something than just to count how many there are. You can reckon something without having to know the exact number. So if I say... Genedion in yrch = I am calculating the number of orcs (about 1000) Nedin in yrch = I am counting the orcs (one, two, three).
Amy: Hello! I am confused about the verb nautha-. In lesson 17 the dialog at the start has “nauthog” for “you think”, then “semin” for “I think”. Is nautha- one of the irregular verbs? I can’t find anything else it in the lessons or dictionary. Thank you!
Jul 12, 2020 2:56:39 GMT
Xandarien: Suilad! There have been two verbs used for 'to think', I apologise for the confusion. There's Nautha- 'to conceive an idea, think' and Sam- 'to think. Sam- should have been removed everywhere as it was a reconstruction that we don't need. I'll change that.
Jul 13, 2020 8:47:43 GMT
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Jul 14, 2020 2:16:08 GMT
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Sept 11, 2020 15:15:50 GMT
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Adanedhell: Where did you collect all the knowledge? I mean the books of Tolkien etc.
Oct 27, 2020 16:47:28 GMT
Xandarien: There are essays and notes published in two journals called Vinyar Tengwar and Parma Eldalamberon, also in bits of The History of Middle-earth, odd words here and there really!
Oct 28, 2020 20:40:53 GMT
Taisa: Hello. I need some help on translation if someone here can help please. I need to translate "now and always" in sindarin.
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Apr 28, 2021 3:18:29 GMT