We have four verbs that all look like they mean the same thing, 'to count': Nod- Gonod- Nedia- Genedia-
So what's the difference between them? How do you know which one to pick?
Gonod- = to count up, to count all the things in a group Nod- = to count. Not necessary all things. Nedia- = to count, reckon or number Genedia- = to reckon, to calculate the number of things (not necessarily by individually counting)
This all looks relatively straightforward, but what about this word? S. arnediad adj. “unnumbered, without reckoning, countless” ✧ WJ/028.1803 (Older form N. arnediad adj. “without reckoning, numberless, innumerable, countless, endless”)
Given Tolkien’s propensity for language, I think we can explain Arnediad meaning ‘without reckoning’ on the basis that he considered the words interchangeable. It’s also the name of the most terrible battle in the legendarium, Nirnaith Arnediad = The Battle of Unnumbered Tears. Given the importance of this battle, I think some leeway is allowed in the definition of the word Arnediad (Ar- is the Doriathrin, Old Sindarin way of saying ‘without’ before Pen- was introduced).
This leaves both Nedia- and Genedia- as being viable candidates for talking about figurative counting (Nedion gelyenin = I count my blessings, Genedion gelyenin = I reckon my blessings) but if I were specifically wanting to say ‘I calculate’, I would use Genedia- (Genedion in Edhil = I am calculating the number of Elves).
'To reckon' is much more 'to calculate' something than just to count how many there are. You can reckon something without having to know the exact number. So if I say... Genedion in yrch = I am calculating the number of orcs (about 1000) Nedin in yrch = I am counting the orcs (one, two, three).
Amy: Hello! I am confused about the verb nautha-. In lesson 17 the dialog at the start has “nauthog” for “you think”, then “semin” for “I think”. Is nautha- one of the irregular verbs? I can’t find anything else it in the lessons or dictionary. Thank you!
Jul 12, 2020 2:56:39 GMT
Xandarien: Suilad! There have been two verbs used for 'to think', I apologise for the confusion. There's Nautha- 'to conceive an idea, think' and Sam- 'to think. Sam- should have been removed everywhere as it was a reconstruction that we don't need. I'll change that.
Jul 13, 2020 8:47:43 GMT
Amy: Thank you! I really enjoy the lessons. Len hannon!
Jul 14, 2020 2:16:08 GMT
Halcyon: Suilad, Mae l’ovannen!
Sept 11, 2020 15:15:50 GMT
Halcyon: I’ve just started taking these lessons, and I’m really learning a lot already! The format you’ve presented the lessons in is easy to navigate. Thank you for creating this website!
Sept 11, 2020 15:17:34 GMT
Teryn: Wow, this website is amazing! I started the lessons two days ago and I'm already using phrases with some friends of mine. Thank you sooo much for creating this, I can't tell you how helpful it is!!
Sept 14, 2020 23:34:15 GMT
Xandarien: You're both very welcome, and if you're 16 or over don't forget I have a Discord
Sept 15, 2020 19:46:27 GMT
Felix: what is your discord?
Sept 30, 2020 16:32:58 GMT
Xandarien: Please PM me for access
Sept 30, 2020 19:42:36 GMT
Adanedhell: Where did you collect all the knowledge? I mean the books of Tolkien etc.
Oct 27, 2020 16:47:28 GMT
Xandarien: There are essays and notes published in two journals called Vinyar Tengwar and Parma Eldalamberon, also in bits of The History of Middle-earth, odd words here and there really!
Oct 28, 2020 20:40:53 GMT
Taisa: Hello. I need some help on translation if someone here can help please. I need to translate "now and always" in sindarin.
Mar 23, 2021 17:04:36 GMT
Xandarien: If you are encountering a 404 error when trying to download the phrasebook this is intended due to the ongoing website revamp I'm doing behind the scenes
Apr 9, 2021 14:45:21 GMT
Taliandra: I am so excited to have found this, thank you so much for making it all free, My days will be filled with study to learn this gorgeous language. I can't wait to impress my LARP friends with my expertise in the elven tongue!
Apr 28, 2021 3:18:29 GMT
Sam: Will you run this course again?
Jul 3, 2021 4:09:56 GMT
Xandarien: Yes! Not sure when yet, probably early next year
Jul 4, 2021 19:35:58 GMT
Abigail: Has the website been updated recently? Some of the phrases and words are different from how I remember. Last I was here, ‘I must go’ was said as ‘Boe gwaen’, now it is ‘Boe menin’?
Jul 29, 2021 3:36:00 GMT
Xandarien: I did a large website revamp recently yes. Gwa(e) is a verb for 'to go' but people generally prefer Men-
Jul 29, 2021 13:22:01 GMT
David Edelen: Xandarein, so she could use Boe gwaen or Boe Menin either one?
Aug 11, 2021 21:57:59 GMT
Xandarien: Boe gwaen more means 'I must depart, I must go' and Boe menin is just 'I must go' (assuming moving in space). So technically yes, it just depends what nuance you want to go for.
Aug 12, 2021 9:51:38 GMT