dýgar n.1. mistaken act, 2.adj. doing a wrong thing PE/17 haer adj. remote PE/17:25 rhúnedain n. Easterlings, PE/17
*genedia- v. to reckon ← genediad SD/129-31 changed to *genedia- v. to reckon, count up ← genediad SD/129-31 hae adj. far, remote, distant ← Gwahaedir PM/186, VT/45:21 changed tohae adj. very far away ← Gwahaedir PM/186, VT/45:21, PE/17:25
This update is a hefty one! Lots of lovely new words, a handful have been removed, and several expanded definitions.
belaith (mbelaith) adj. mighty PE/17:115 breth n. acorns, nuts (mast – the fruit of beech, oak, chestnut and other woodland trees) cadhad n. Dwarf. An old Beleriandic adaptation of the Dwarves’ own name khazad PE/17:45 cadhadrim n. class pl. of cadhad, Dwarf-folk. An old Beleriandic adaptation of the Dwarves’ own name khazad PE/17:45 cáfru n. flea, ‘leaper’ PE/13:140, PE/17:131 covad- v. to make meet, to bring together. Transitive form of cova- PE/17:158 crumguru adj. guilty, sinister, wily (from the old meaning of ‘sinister’ referring to being left-handed) Ety/AC cuen n. small gull, petrel, sea-bird PE/22:32 dadwen (ndadwen) n. to return, go back PE/17:166 dufa- v. to lie heavy, be heavy, hang over oppressively (of clouds) Ety/AC edhelvain adj. Elven-fair PE/17:57 edlon n. outsider, stranger PE/17:141 foen n. long sight (also a name given to a mountain in Beleriand) WJ/187 glim n. voice PE/17:97 gordh adj. difficult, laborious PE/17:154 grau adj. dark in colour, swart Ety/AC gweth n. report PM/395 haedh n. fenced enclosure PE/19:91 harven n. south-region Ety/AC lamma- v. to echo (cf. Eryd Lammad “Echoing Mountains”) laudh n. gluttonous eating PE/19:92 lîn. people (of one kind or origin) PE/17:190 liss adj. fragrant UT/189 naedh n. a wound, gash PE/19:92 ness n. headland UT/28 rhae adj. easy PE/17:172 rhonn (N. rhond) n. body PE/17:183 rost adj. rainy (cf. Dimrost “Rainy stair”) *talif n. ankle ‘foot link’
ᵲ achan n. law, rule, commandment (Q axan) changed to ᵲ thann n. law, commandment (cf. Q. sanyë) ¶ ᵲ bladweg adj. proud changed to ¶ ᵲ bladren adj. proud, arrogant (cf. bladren, EN) ¶ ᵲ budh n. large fly changed tobudhu n. large fly PE/19 ¶ ᵲ cingra- v. to plait (GL) removed as its meaning was replaced byrig- and nathra- ¶ ᵲ cura- v. to turn milk (GL) changed to ¶ ᵲ curtha- v. to turn milk (GL) *draf-v. to hew ◇ Ety/354, VT/45:8 changed to *drava- v. to hew ◇ Ety/354, VT/45:8 ¶ ᵲ edeleda- v. to deliver (from evil) changed to ¶ ᵲ edeletha- v. to deliver (from evil) giln. star, bright spark changed togil (ngil) n. star, bright spark giliath n. coll. of gil/geil, all the host of stars changed to giliath (ngiliath) n. coll. of gil/geil, all the host of stars ᵲ gilvír (N. élvír) n. Mercury, ‘star jewel’ changed to ᵲ gilvír (ngilvír) (N. élvír) n. Mercury, ‘star jewel’ ᵲ lammad n. voice removed due to the addition of glim ¶ ᵲ neta- v. to bleat (of sheep) removed pending redoing ¶ ᵲ thas- v. to shave removed pending redoing ¶ ᵲ tuig n. thigh changed to ᵲ tûd n. thigh (cf. EN tûd) – changed from Middle Quenya origin to Early Noldorin (same time period, more accurate for modern Sindarin)
beleg adj. great, mighty ◇ Ety/352, S/428 changed to beleg adj. big, large, great, mighty ◇ Ety/352, S/428 cova- v. to meet, to come together changed tocova- v. to meet, to come together, gather, assemble PE/17:158 graw n. bear changed tograw n. bear (possibly dark in colour) maer adj. useful, fit, good (of things) ◇ Ety/371 changed tomaer adj. good, excellent, fair; useful, fit, good (of things) ◇ Ety/371 ᵲ nathra- v. to weave (nathron) symbol updated to indicate it is deduced not reconstructed to *nathra- v. to weave (nathron) *nor- v. 1. to run ○ 2.by ext., to ride changed to *nor- v. 1. to run (of animals or men) ○ 2.by ext., to ride northa- v. to race (on horses) PE/17 changed tonortha- v. to make run, to race (on horses) PE/17 *pâdn. way ← Aphadon (*ap-pata), Tharbad (*thara-pata) WJ/387, S/438 changed to *pâd n. a step (action), way, road, track ← Aphadon (*ap-pata), Tharbad (*thara-pata) WJ/387, S/438 †rîw (N. rhîf) n. edge, hem, border ◇ Ety/383, X/RH changed to †rîw (N. rhîf) n. brink, brim, edge, hem, border ◇ Ety/383, X/RH, PE/17
athon v. affirmation yes, I will. This is the only remaining part of the verb atha- PE/22:167 changed toathon pl. athof v. affirmation yes, I will pl. yes, we will. This is the only remaining part of the verb atha- PE/22:167 dadwen (ndadwen) n. to return, go back PE/17:166 changed todadwen- (ndadwen-) v. to return, go back PE/17:166
cad prep. after (when discussing time) ← cadlaer eb prep. before (when discussing time) CE epe PE/22:167 galathil n. one of the Two Trees of Valinor, known in Quenya as Telperion ᵲ obprep. before (when discussing space) CE opo PE/22:167 ola- v. to become, turn into (another state) PE/22:134
Changed nimmid- to nimmida- Removed núf prep. before
ab-prep.pref. after, later WJ/387 changed to ab/ab-prep.pref. after, later WJ/387 minlamad n. 'first voiced' or 'first-echoing', alliterative (?) verse mode (minlamad thent/estent) ◇ UT/146, WJ/311, WJ/315 ◈ The word is not translated by Tolkien. For a discussion of its probable meaning, refer to Tolkien's Legendarium p. 121-122 changed to minlamad n. 'first voiced' or 'first-echoing', alliterative (?) verse mode (minlamad thent/estent) ◇ UT/146, WJ/311, WJ/315 ◈ The word is not translated by Tolkien but is likely to refer to the form and metre of Beowulf (lines of alliterative verse divided by a caesura)
Amy: Hello! I am confused about the verb nautha-. In lesson 17 the dialog at the start has “nauthog” for “you think”, then “semin” for “I think”. Is nautha- one of the irregular verbs? I can’t find anything else it in the lessons or dictionary. Thank you!
Jul 12, 2020 2:56:39 GMT
Xandarien: Suilad! There have been two verbs used for 'to think', I apologise for the confusion. There's Nautha- 'to conceive an idea, think' and Sam- 'to think. Sam- should have been removed everywhere as it was a reconstruction that we don't need. I'll change that.
Jul 13, 2020 8:47:43 GMT
Amy: Thank you! I really enjoy the lessons. Len hannon!
Jul 14, 2020 2:16:08 GMT
Halcyon: Suilad, Mae l’ovannen!
Sept 11, 2020 15:15:50 GMT
Halcyon: I’ve just started taking these lessons, and I’m really learning a lot already! The format you’ve presented the lessons in is easy to navigate. Thank you for creating this website!
Sept 11, 2020 15:17:34 GMT
Teryn: Wow, this website is amazing! I started the lessons two days ago and I'm already using phrases with some friends of mine. Thank you sooo much for creating this, I can't tell you how helpful it is!!
Sept 14, 2020 23:34:15 GMT
Xandarien: You're both very welcome, and if you're 16 or over don't forget I have a Discord
Sept 15, 2020 19:46:27 GMT